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Sunday, 18 February 2018

The Great Game- Pakistan’s Choice




The USA’s international foreign policy generally and Indian Ocean policy particularly is China and Russia centered. The USA sees China and Russia as the biggest threat to the USA’s interests. Now USA is not thinking in terms of containment of China, as China has already risen; rather they are devising their foreign policy in terms of competing China and Russia in Indian Ocean particularly and internationally generally. The C-PEC is seen by the USA as springboard from where China can reflect its military and naval power well deep into Indian Ocean. That is why USA has made India its strategic partner and has adopted a policy of securing Indian Ocean with the help of India, UK, and Australia.
Therefore we see USA has forged an agreement with India in 2016 for mutual use of military and naval bases. India has adopted policy to have access to port of Chahbahar, to port Dukm of Oman, Assumption Island of Seychelles, Agalega in Mauritius; India also has control over Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Similarly Australia is developing Cocos Islands.  All these facilities along-with already  available facilities like  Diego Garcia, Djibouti, Bahrain add to USA’s, UK’s, and India’s    capability to secure Indian Ocean Sea lanes.   
On the other hand  China is developing naval facilities at Gwadar, Djibouti, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives. Though all these facilities, except Djibouti, are commercial facilities, not military facilities but USA knows very well that commercial power/ influence can be converted into political/ military power. That is why we see a great game in Indian Ocean.
This great game revolves around C-PEC project; this project is the most vibrant tool through which China can reflect its naval/military muscles in Indian Ocean up to Africa and beyond. That is why USA, UK, and India have started concerted efforts to keep Pakistan away from China’s block. The recent move by USA and UK on the complaint of India to keep Pakistan on the watch-list of FATF is in fact a bid from USA block to convey Pakistan a message that Pakistan can be a part of China’s block only at the cost of western investment in Pakistan.
Now it is for Pakistan to decide whether Pakistan wants to be a truly independent and prosperous country through C-PEC by getting out of clutches of USA and western powers OR Pakistan wants to be a subordinate state to USA and India. To Join USA and Indian block would mean Kashmir would never be liberated from Indian slavery. It would also mean Pakistan would be subordinated to India’s economic interests because the west has made huge investments in India. In this way Pakistan would never be an independent country economically and politically. On the other hand, through joining China’s block through C-PEC, Pakistan is having a plenty of opportunities to be an independent country economically; resultantly Pakistan would definitely come out of clutches of western domination. The chances of resolution of Kashmir dispute would be brighter.
In order to counter Indo-USA alliance in Indian Ocean, Pakistan should think about forging an alliance with Turkey, China, Russia and Iran for mutual use of military and naval bases. To make this policy a success, Pakistan has to adopt a policy of removing all vestiges of western influences in Pakistan's policy making; we have to be one sided in this great game because USA and India would not agree lesser than Pakistan aborting C-PEC, or stopping it from full running. Any segment of Pakistan’s policy to compromise C-PEC would keep Pakistan away from benefiting fully from this project.  Therefore we need a political leadership fully committed to C-PEC and fully committed to remove western influences from Pakistan's policy making process. We should also forget about  investments  from countries like USA, UK and France, in Pakistan at least for the time being. These countries would not invest in Pakistan until they would have  failed in disrupting the project of C-PEC.   

Thursday, 16 November 2017

Nature of Eman and its Implications




I think we should understand properly what is Eman and what is Eman bil ghaib. Eman is such belief which a person develops in himself after getting knowledge that the belief he believes in is a reality. If this knowledge is based on the person’s reasoning as well as observations/ experiences, it may lead to common ‘Eman’; if this knowledge is based on the person’s reasoning ONLY, it may lead to ‘Eman bil ghaib’. It may be appreciated knowledge does not essentially lead to Eman/ ‘Eman bil ghaib’; however Eman/Eman bil ghaib  is always based on knowledge- whether this knowledge is based on both reasoning and observations/ experiences OR based on reasoning only.  For instance if a gunshot is fired at me by an expert sniper, I still may not believe that the bullet would hit me though my knowledge may dictate me otherwise. But if I develop Eman that the bullet would hit me, such Eman would be based on my knowledge about the expertise of the shooter. A prisoner convicted with death sentence and having exhausted and failed in all appeals still may have belief that he will not be hanged though his knowledge may  dictate him otherwise. But if he develops belief/ Eman that he would be hanged, such belief would be based on his knowledge.  

It may be appreciated there is no such thing as blind Faith/Eman. For instance, if we ask a person (declared as having so called blind faith) to believe in Geeta as Quran, he will not believe that Geeta is Quran. Why? Because his ‘Eman’ in Quran is not without his knowledge that Quran is such a Book which has been revealed to our Rasool  and its contents are true.  A born Muslim’s Eman, in his childhood or adulthood, is usually based on his knowledge that his parents are Muslims and that knowledge of his parents is right. It may be appreciated ‘knowledge’-whether based on both observation/experience and reasoning or based on reasoning only- is a quality which can be exercised by a well -educated as well as an illiterate person.  As for rightness  or wrongness of knowledge, knowledge of both well -educated and illiterate person may be turned to be wrong or right.
It may also be appreciated that ‘Eman bil ghaib’ is relating to things which cannot be perceived through physical faculties; for instance belief in paradise, Hell, Angels etc. cannot be perceived through common human physical faculties; as such these things are subject of ‘Eman bil ghaib’. As against Eman bil ghaib, common ‘Eman’ is related to things which can be perceived through common human physical faculties. As already mentioned above, ‘Eman bil ghaib’ is always based on reasoning, and common Eman is based on reasoning as well as observation/ experience. In other words, the things which cannot be perceived through common senses may be believed through reasoning ONLY, and this process of believing is called ‘Eman bil ghaib’; and the things which can be perceived through common senses may be believed through reasoning as well as observation/experience, and such process is called common ‘Eman’.
 Quran, Hadith and person of Muhammad are not subject of ‘Eman bil ghaib’; because Quran, Hadith and Muhammad were perceived through human senses. We know Muhammad  spent more than 60 years among the people, and he  interacted with the people and people got training, education, self-purgation and purification by his person. His person cannot be a subject of ‘Eman bil ghaib’.  Almost all important events of his life are recorded; it is through contents of Quran and Hadith that we can see what was his conduct, life and preaching. In this way, he did not remain, for the next generations, a person who cannot be perceived through common senses.  
In short, Quran, Hadith and Muhammad are not subject of ‘Eman bil ghaib’; rather they are subject of common ‘Eman’. As mentioned earlier, common Eman is always based on   reasoning as well as observation/ experience. Thus our knowledge based on reasoning and observation/ experiences may be basis of our Eman/ Faith on contents of Quran, Hadith and Muhammad .  But as mentioned earlier, knowledge cannot essentially lead us to Eman; but Eman is always based on knowledge. In other words, if we have developed Eman in Muhammad ﷺ, in Quran and Hadith, it means we have exercised our reasoning and have made use of our observations/ experiences.
It may be appreciated ‘common Eman’ is subject of things which can be perceived through common human physical senses. Therefore it is not essential for reposing common ‘Eman’ in Quran, Hadith and Muhammad that a person should have personal observation/ experience regarding reality of Quran, Hadith and Muhammad ; it would be enough to have common ‘Eman’ in Quran, Hadith and Muhammad if other people have observations/ experiences regarding reality of Quran, Hadith and Muhammad ﷺ.  That is why we believe in Muhammad  though we were not born in the age of Muhammad ﷺ; we believe in Quran though we were not born when Quran was being revealed to our Nabi ﷺ ; we believe in Hadith though we were not born when ahadith were being listened by the narrators. In short, in order to have ‘common Eman’  in Muhammad ﷺ, in Quran and Hadith, we have to believe in what has been narrated  by companions of our Nabi   regarding our Nabi and his sayings and actions on the basis of their knowledge based on their observations and experiences. In other words, we have to believe in observations and experiences of narrators; otherwise we cannot have knowledge required for having Eman in Muhammad s.a.w.ww., in Quran and Hadith. However such narration is subject to ascertainment that it has been rightly attributed to our Nabi ﷺ.  


Sunday, 12 November 2017

Difference Between Contents of Nabuwwah/Resalah and Contents of Quran/Hadith




Munkareen e Hadith are confusing contents of Nabuwwah with contents of Quran and Hadith which are functions of Resalah/Nabuwwah. Allah has clearly differentiated between contents of Nabuwwah/ Resalah and contents of Quran/ Hadith. Allah says:

 “O you who have believed, believe in Allah and His Messenger and the Book that He sent down upon His Messenger and the Scripture which He sent down before. And whoever disbelieves in Allah , His angels, His books, His messengers, and the Last Day has certainly gone far astray” (al-nisaa-136).

This verse demands Eman/ faith not only in Allah’s Messenger/ ‘Rasool’ but also in the Book He revealed unto His ‘Rasool’; that means Eman/Faith in contents of Resalah is something different from Eman/Faith in contents of Quran. Similarly Quran says:

  " .....So believe in Allah and His Messenger/ Rasool, the unlettered Nabi, who believes in Allah and His words, and follow (wattabiuhu)) him that you may be guided (al-aaraf-158).
 This verse too describes that believing in Nabi is something different from following the Nabi . That means Eman/Faith in contents of Nabuwwah is different from Eman/Faith in contents of Hadith (sayings/actions of our Nabi ﷺ).  

The Contents of Nabuwwah are relating to Eman/ Faith. Any person, even out of ignorance, cannot deny Eman/ faith; if he does so he becomes 'kafir'. But if any person denies any verse of Quran or any hadith- due to the fact that he does not know about existence of such verse or hadith- he does not become kafir. This is the difference between contents of Nabuwwah/ Resalah and contents of Quran and Hadith.

The contents of Nabuwwah are to have Eman/faith that Muhammad
is Allah's last Nabi ; that he receives wahi from Allah through angel (al-shu,ra-52); that he interprets Quranic Words through the wahi he recieves (al-qiyamah-19); that sayings/actions of Nabi are interpretations of Quran (al-aa,raf-203) and as such are part of Deen. Contents of Resalah are to have faith that Muhammad is Allah's Rasool; he receives wahi from Allah directly (al-Jin-26;27) or through the angel; he received Quran i.e. Allah's Words from Allah through wahi; Quran is guidance for humanity till Qiyamah.

It means contents of Nabuwwah and Resalah are relating to Faith/ Eman; denial of these contents of Nabuwwah and Resalah is kufr. It may be appreciated contents of Nabuwwah and Resalah are included in the contents of Quran and Hadith (contents of Quran and Hadith are actually functions of Resalah and Nabuwwah respectively). But there are some differences between the two; all contents of Nabuwwah/Resalah are included in the contents of Quran/Hadith but all contents of Quran/Hadith are not included in the contents of Resalah/Nabuwwah. The contents of Nabuwwah and Resalah are only relating to Eman/faith but contents of Quran and Hadith are also relating to actions. Denial of contents of Quran and Hadith- is also kufr; that means denial of contents of Quran (after knowing its existence), and Hadith (which is believed to be rightly attributed to our Nabi s.a.w.w.) is kufr though such denial may not be denial of Nabuwwah and Resalah. 

 As mentioned above, contents of Quran and Hadith are functions of Resalah and Nabuwwah; out of these contents of Quran and Hadith, some are relating to contents of Resalah/Nabuwwah. It means contents of Resalah/ Nabuwwah are such functions of Resalah/Nabuwwah which are relating to only Eman. It may be appreciated all functions of Resalah/ Nabuwwah which are related to Eman are not contents of Resalah/Nabuwwah; there are also some other functions of Resalah/Nabuwwah which are relating to Eman but are not contents of Resalah/Nabuwwa. Some of these other functions of Resalah/Nabuwwah relating to Eman have been described in verse al-nisa-136 mentioned above; these are: having Eman/Faith in Allah, in Quran, in Messengers, previous Divine Books, in Angels, in AAkhirah. The list also includes having Faith in the Messenger/ Muhammad s.a.w.w. but having faith in Messenger/Muhammad s.a.w.w. relates to contents of Resalah.